Sao Tome and Principe is an African Island near the equator, off the Atlantic Ocean coast. It was formed due to volcanic activity in the deep Ocean along with Cameroon. It is the second smallest state in Africa after Seychelles and the smallest Portuguese speaking country. The capital and largest city is Sao Tome named after Saint Thomas. It is located on the northeastern part of Sao Tome Island.
Most land of the country is occupied by the national park; this causes agriculture to be minimal. The resources available in the country are oil, natural gas and energy. However, most citizens live below the line of poverty due to low income, lack of infrastructure and social capital.
Sao Tome was colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century. Cocoa was introduced in the country in the 1800s which eventually became the largest producers of cocoa in the world. The country gained independence in 1975 with Manuel Pinto da Costa as the president. The cocoa plantations were nationalized in the same year. A new constitution was formed in 1990 that paved the way for a multi-party system including opposition ones.
As of 2018, the Island had a population of 211,028 and it has an area of 1,001km2.
The official and national language is Portuguese.
The country’s education system comprises of compulsory four years of primary education, five years of junior secondary education and two years of senior secondary education.
The predominant religion is Christianity.
Sao Tome and Principe has a tropical climate where it’s hot and humid all over the year. The dominant crop with the highest export is cocoa. The country makes one of the best chocolate in the world. The plantations are very large at Corallo Farm. The county also exports copra, palm kernels and coffee.
Sao Tome is larger than Principe; it has an oval shape and lies approximately 90 miles from Principe. The closest neighbours to it are Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.