Around 3000 BC, the upper and lower kingdoms of Egypt united. There was successful trade, prosperity and good cultural traditions evident in the country. In 332 BC, Alexander the Great of ancient Macedonia conquered Egypt when he founded Alexandria and ruled until 31 BC. Then in 31 BC, it was conquered by the Roman Empire. When the Octavian army defeated Queen Cleopatra’s soldiers, she committed suicide.
Christianity came into Egypt in 33 AD and replaced Egyptian religion by 4th century. Around 4th-6th centuries, the Roman province of Egypt became a section of eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine). Arabs later conquered Egypt between 641 AD and 654 AD. Then in 1517 Egypt was assimilated into the Turkish Ottoman Empire. In 1805, Ottoman Albanian commander Muhammad Ali formed a government that ruled until 1952.
The construction of the Suez Canal was completed in 1869 along with other infrastructure projects that almost bankrupted the country causing the British to take control of the country in 1882. In 1917, Fuad I became the sultan of Egypt and Sudan.
Later the Egyptians led a revolution and independence from the British was gained on 22nd February 1922.
Gamal Abdel Nasser was brought into power in 1952 by a coup. One of the things that Nasser is remembered for is the Israel six days of war where his country together with Iraq, Jordan and Syria joined forces against the new Jewish state.
The British, French and Israelis fought over the nationalisation of the Suez Canal but backed down after US demands. President Anwar Sadat made peace with Israel in 1978 and later was killed by Islamist activists in 1981 and succeeded by Hosni Mubarak.
In 2011, the Arab Spring, a series of anti-government protests, exiled President Hosni Mubarak and Mohammed Morsi became president before also being exiled by a coup in 2014 after which Abdul Fattah el-Sisi took power.
As of 2019, it had a population of 99.21 million. The official religion is Islam. And the national language is Arabic.